Thursday, May 21, 2020

Did Medieval People Think the Earth War Flat

There is a piece of common knowledge about the Middle Ages we have heard repeated over and over again: that medieval people thought the earth was flat. In addition, theres a second claim weve heard a few times: that Columbus faced opposition to his attempt to find a western route to Asia because people thought the earth was flat and hed fall off. Widespread facts with one very, very big problem: Columbus, and many if not most medieval people, knew the earth was round. As did many ancient Europeans, and those since. The Truth By the Middle Ages, there was a widespread belief among the educated that the Earth was a globe. Columbus did face opposition on his voyage, but not from people who thought he’d drop off the edge of the world. Instead, people believed he’d predicted too small a globe and would run out of supplies before he made it around to Asia. It was not edges of the world people feared, but the world being too big and round for them to cross with the technology available. Understanding the Earth as a Globe People in Europe probably did believe that the earth was flat at one stage, but that was in the very early ancient period, possible before the 4th century BCE, the very early phases of European civilization. It was around this date that Greek thinkers began to not only realize the earth was a globe but calculated the precise dimensions of our planet. There was much discussion about which competing size theory was correct, and whether people lived on the other side of the world. The transition from the ancient world to the medieval one is often blamed for a loss of knowledge, a â€Å"move backward†, but the belief that the world was a globe is evident in writers from across the period. The few examples of those who doubted it have been stressed instead of the thousands of examples of those who didn’t. Why the flat Earth myth? The idea that medieval people thought the earth was flat appears to have spread in the late nineteenth century as a stick with which to beat the medieval Christian church, which is often blamed for restricting intellectual growth in the period. The myth also taps into people’s ideas of â€Å"progress† and of the medieval era as a period of savagery without much thought. Professor Jeffrey Russell argues that the Columbus myth originated in a history of Columbus from 1828 by Washington Irving, which claimed that theologians and experts of the period opposed funding the voyages because the earth was flat. This is now known to be false, but anti-Christian thinkers seized upon it. Indeed, in a presentation summarizing his book ‘Inventing the Flat Earth: Columbus and Modern Historians,’  Russell states: No one before the 1830s believed that medieval people thought that the Earth was flat.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Smut, Erotic Reality/obscene Ideology Essay - 1700 Words

Smut, Erotic Reality/Obscene Ideology In the book Smut, Erotic Reality/ Obscene Ideology , by Murray Davis (1983), the author expresses the idea that the best source for studying human sexuality objectively is soft core, rather than â€Å"hard core† pornography. (Davis p. xix). The purpose of this paper is to critique Daviss claim and to study what understanding of human sexuality someone might have if they used some other resource that is available today, in this case the Internet. Davis argues that , hard core pornography is usually more abstract and less explicit than soft-core pornography. (Davis, p. xix, 1983). Davis doesnt go on to explain how hard-core pornography can be less explicit than soft-core. However he†¦show more content†¦In these stories the characters will have sex, but the sex may or may not be the main focus of the story, but rather something that is bound to happen when personal and social characteristics clash. I believe that Davis is somewhat correct in assuming that soft-core is a more objectively reliable source for studying human sexuality. When I hear the words soft-core pornography, I tend to think of Playboy, or films and movies that depict a story about a person or group of people, and within that story the characters engage in sexual activity. This sexual activity is shown or described to the reader/viewer but is not done in a graphic nature. That is, the actual sexual penetration is not shown or shown very minimally. Hard-core, on the other hand, is shown or described more graphically. The dialogue usually includes, as Davis states, four-letter words. The story seems to have less of a plot and less character development. The main purpose of the work is to show or describe sex. So it is in this sense that I agree with Davis. However, I firmly believe that there is not one single resource that is the best method of studying human sexuality. There are many sources which are helpful when studying sex and human sexuality. They can range from textbooks, entertainment magazines, television programs, to movies and novels. In my opinion the most reliable and important resource for studying human sexualityShow MoreRelatedMurray Davis Smut, Erotic Reality/Obscene Ideology1758 Words   |  8 PagesMurray Davis Smut, Erotic Reality/Obscene Ideology In the book Smut, Erotic Reality/ Obscene Ideology , by Murray Davis (1983), the author expresses the idea that the best source for studying human sexuality objectively is soft core, rather than hard core pornography. (Davis p. xix). The purpose of this paper is to critique Daviss claim and to study what understanding of human sexuality someone might have if they used some other resource that is available today, in this case the Internet

Native American Literature Free Essays

Indians, we picture them as half naked people causing raucous throughout the land, messing with the settlers, and being completely uncivilized and uneducated. There Is no way that these people could have created stones to be passed down throughout the generations but they did and they still are around to this very day. These oral traditions, or stories that are told by word of mouth, include â€Å"The World on the Turtle’s Back†, which explains to us how our world came to be. We will write a custom essay sample on Native American Literature or any similar topic only for you Order Now The story â€Å"Coyote and Buffalo† gives us lessons that easily correlate with the building of a person’s hearted, and finally, â€Å"Fox and Coyote and the Whale† persuades us to fight for who and what we love. These tall tales can be Influential to our lives as Americans because the stories tell of lessons that could be essential to all of the human race when it comes to developing one’s self to become a better soul. The story called â€Å"World on Turtle’s Back† gives us an idea on how the Indians believed the world began. Before there was an Earth there was a skyward. There, a pregnant lady went to dig up the roots from a sacred tree and was then either pushed Into or accidental fallen through a hole that exposed an entire new world underneath. (Page 42, Paragraph 1) As she fell and grasped to the edges of skyward, remnants of soil and roots were attached to her hands. Luckily, as she fell a group of birds caught her on their wingspan and finally laded her down upon a sea turtle’s shell. Then, a heroic muskrat brought up soil from deep within the ocean underneath so the fallen lady could set to work creating land. ( Page 42, Paragraph 9) Soon the pregnant woman gave birth to her child, a daughter, and together the two travel around the turtle’s back until land was formed. As her child aged she became magically pregnant by the West Wind. Page 42) She then gives birth to twins who constantly quarrel, for they are opposites, good and evil. Together they balance the world, inventing opposing animals such as the peaceful deer and violent mountain lion. Page 40, Paragraph 2) As the story progresses, it tells of reasons for most common assurances in nature, such as the moon being the twin, as in today’s ideas of evil It Is associated with the darkness that comes from the night. The second story Is entitled â€Å"Coyote and Buffalo†. This story expresses to the dalliance various character traits that should be Instilled within a person or avoided. One of these values is to respect others. When coyote kicks the skull of the dead bull, and the bull comes back alive to kill him, it expresses how important it is to treat others the way you would want to be treated. Page 25, paragraph 1) Another lesson it emphasizes Is to listen to what you’re told to do, as it is for a reason. When the bull gives coyote the cow, he tells him not to eat It, but coyote does not listen and defies him. (page 28-29) Coyote at this point Is very dishonest and greedy. He thinks that he can get away with eating the cow and perhaps getting another one from the bull, hush leading up to another life lesson, karma. When coyote kills the cow, an old woman tells him that he should not be cooking the cow for that is woman’s work. At this point, coyote is being incredibly vain and this woman is being very sneaky and steals all of his food. (Page 28, paragraph 2) This proves that what comes around goes around and that you should let yourself become slobbered, which all people have The last story is called â€Å"The Fox, Coyote, and Whale† and it teaches a lesson on fighting for those you love. Fox’s wife, leaves him to be the evil whale that occupies the river. Page 44, Paragraph 1) Fox is so overwhelmed by his love for her that he stops at no cost and risks his life to retrieve her from the whale’s possession. While trying to take his wife back, the evil whale attempts to kill Fox, Coyote, and Fox’s wife, but Fox loves these people and protects them over himself and hides them within his pipe, saving them all. (Page 45, Paragraph 1) As Fox’s wife gets away from Whale, she feels as if she had been awaken from a spell, for once she is returned to fox she becomes happy again. (Page 45, Paragraph 4) So in other words, love can cast a spell n you causing you to make rash decisions while under its magical powers. Of course, Fox finally forgives his wife, but this proves that you should not cheat on your significant other. So in conclusion, Native American literature is very important to our society. The themes of all of the stories are easily related to everyday life. From the positive moments to the very lows, lessons can be learned from these tales. To the people of Indian cultures these stories are still very relevant to their lives. It is the only surviving history that they have of the prior lives of their relatives, so they must keep it preserved for generations to come. How to cite Native American Literature, Papers Native American Literature Free Essays Native American Displacement Native American literature is based on the everyday lives and experiences of the people native to North America. There are four main themes in Native Americas literature: displacement, â€Å"thou vs. it†, definition of evil, and assimilation. We will write a custom essay sample on Native American Literature or any similar topic only for you Order Now The most prominent is displacement which is expressed through the removal from one’s home, the removal of one’s language, and the removal of one’s identity. The first example of displacement was the removal of Native Americans from their homes and homelands. This excerpt from On Indian Removal shows the Natives being moved away from their homes by the English settlers â€Å"It will separate them from immediate contact with settlements of whites†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Jackson 3. ). The natives were moved without any option to areas with terrible living conditions. Natives were also violently chased from their homes. â€Å"The American armies always drove them out at harvest time, making them face winter without food or shelter†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Thom 1. ). This quote shows English armies driving them out very forcefully right at harvest time; this left the Natives on the run, cold, and starving. From panther in the sky, this quote is another example of displacement â€Å"It was now just as it had been most of her life, the people fleeing, the war chiefs protecting them—except that now they were not in their homeland anymore. † (Thom 3. ).. It shows how the natives of that time had been running for most of their lives. The second form of displacement is the loss of the Native’s languages due to the Englishman’s pressure. After assimilation many Native Americans lost their language. â€Å"†¦and I never understood her prayer†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Edrich 1184. ) this quote from â€Å"The Way to Rainy Mountain. shows that over the years many Natives lost their languages. Children were taken and placed into boarding schools due to displacement. â€Å"The experience in boarding schools which existed from 1875 to 1928 was difficult for Indian children who were forbidden to speak their Native language†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Native 1. ). In these boarding schools the Native children were punished if caught speaking in their Native tongue and this led to the loss of their language. New laws passed by English affected Native language as well. â€Å"†¦the outlawing of native languages†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Native 1. This quote comes from â€Å"Native Americans†. Once the English began legally punishing Native who spoke their language, the languages then became less known by generations to come. The third form of displacement was the complete loss of Natives’ identity. In the following quote from â€Å"Native Americans† there are examples of Natives losing their identities: â€Å"Military defeat, cultural pressure, confinement to reservation, forced cultural assimilation†¦Ã¢â‚¬ . The natives are forced to assimilate into English culture causing displacement of overall identity. In the next quote from On Indian Removal Natives begin to give up on old customs â€Å"Two important tribes have excepted the provision made for their removal at the last session of Congress, and it is believed that their example will induce the remaining tribes also to seek the same obvious advantages†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Jackson 1. ). In this Native American begin to give into English pressure leaving behind their heritage and identity. This next quote from â€Å"The Names of Women. † shows total loss of Native names â€Å"renaming became an ecclesiastical exercise, and, as a result, most women in the next two generations bear the names of saints†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Edrich 1182. . The natives were given new names, by the Englishman, to replace their original names. This practice led to the demise of many native identities. As a result of Displacement Native American lives were changed forever. By loss of their home they suffered, whether it have been English settlers peacefully remov ing and relocating them or the English violently pushing them from their homes as seen in Panther in The Sky. Natives also lost their languages through displacement. Lastly, the Native Americans lost their identities by the hands of those foreign to their country that came to America and took utter control. Works Cited Edrich, Louis. â€Å"The Names of Women. † Glencoe American Literature. Eds. Beverly Ann Chinn, et. Al. Columbus, Ott: Glencoe, 2002. pp. 1181-1185. Print. Jackson, A. â€Å"President Andrew Jackson† On Indian Removal. Print. Momaday, N. Scott. from â€Å"The Way to Rainy Mountain. †Glencoe American Literature. Eds. Beverly Ann Chinn, et. Al. Columbus, Ott: Glencoe, 2002. Pp. 1054-59 Native Americans. home. comcast. com. n. p. n. d. Web. 29 Oct. 2012. http://home. comcast. net/~sylvanarrow/native_americans. htm Thom, James Alexander. Prologue. from Panther in The Sky. N. Y. : Ballatine 1989. Print. How to cite Native American Literature, Essay examples

Native American Literature Free Essays

Indians, we picture them as half naked people causing raucous throughout the land, messing with the settlers, and being completely uncivilized and uneducated. There Is no way that these people could have created stones to be passed down throughout the generations but they did and they still are around to this very day. These oral traditions, or stories that are told by word of mouth, include â€Å"The World on the Turtle’s Back†, which explains to us how our world came to be. We will write a custom essay sample on Native American Literature or any similar topic only for you Order Now The story â€Å"Coyote and Buffalo† gives us lessons that easily correlate with the building of a person’s hearted, and finally, â€Å"Fox and Coyote and the Whale† persuades us to fight for who and what we love. These tall tales can be Influential to our lives as Americans because the stories tell of lessons that could be essential to all of the human race when it comes to developing one’s self to become a better soul. The story called â€Å"World on Turtle’s Back† gives us an idea on how the Indians believed the world began. Before there was an Earth there was a skyward. There, a pregnant lady went to dig up the roots from a sacred tree and was then either pushed Into or accidental fallen through a hole that exposed an entire new world underneath. (Page 42, Paragraph 1) As she fell and grasped to the edges of skyward, remnants of soil and roots were attached to her hands. Luckily, as she fell a group of birds caught her on their wingspan and finally laded her down upon a sea turtle’s shell. Then, a heroic muskrat brought up soil from deep within the ocean underneath so the fallen lady could set to work creating land. ( Page 42, Paragraph 9) Soon the pregnant woman gave birth to her child, a daughter, and together the two travel around the turtle’s back until land was formed. As her child aged she became magically pregnant by the West Wind. Page 42) She then gives birth to twins who constantly quarrel, for they are opposites, good and evil. Together they balance the world, inventing opposing animals such as the peaceful deer and violent mountain lion. Page 40, Paragraph 2) As the story progresses, it tells of reasons for most common assurances in nature, such as the moon being the twin, as in today’s ideas of evil It Is associated with the darkness that comes from the night. The second story Is entitled â€Å"Coyote and Buffalo†. This story expresses to the dalliance various character traits that should be Instilled within a person or avoided. One of these values is to respect others. When coyote kicks the skull of the dead bull, and the bull comes back alive to kill him, it expresses how important it is to treat others the way you would want to be treated. Page 25, paragraph 1) Another lesson it emphasizes Is to listen to what you’re told to do, as it is for a reason. When the bull gives coyote the cow, he tells him not to eat It, but coyote does not listen and defies him. (page 28-29) Coyote at this point Is very dishonest and greedy. He thinks that he can get away with eating the cow and perhaps getting another one from the bull, hush leading up to another life lesson, karma. When coyote kills the cow, an old woman tells him that he should not be cooking the cow for that is woman’s work. At this point, coyote is being incredibly vain and this woman is being very sneaky and steals all of his food. (Page 28, paragraph 2) This proves that what comes around goes around and that you should let yourself become slobbered, which all people have The last story is called â€Å"The Fox, Coyote, and Whale† and it teaches a lesson on fighting for those you love. Fox’s wife, leaves him to be the evil whale that occupies the river. Page 44, Paragraph 1) Fox is so overwhelmed by his love for her that he stops at no cost and risks his life to retrieve her from the whale’s possession. While trying to take his wife back, the evil whale attempts to kill Fox, Coyote, and Fox’s wife, but Fox loves these people and protects them over himself and hides them within his pipe, saving them all. (Page 45, Paragraph 1) As Fox’s wife gets away from Whale, she feels as if she had been awaken from a spell, for once she is returned to fox she becomes happy again. (Page 45, Paragraph 4) So in other words, love can cast a spell n you causing you to make rash decisions while under its magical powers. Of course, Fox finally forgives his wife, but this proves that you should not cheat on your significant other. So in conclusion, Native American literature is very important to our society. The themes of all of the stories are easily related to everyday life. From the positive moments to the very lows, lessons can be learned from these tales. To the people of Indian cultures these stories are still very relevant to their lives. It is the only surviving history that they have of the prior lives of their relatives, so they must keep it preserved for generations to come. How to cite Native American Literature, Papers Native American Literature Free Essays Native American Displacement Native American literature is based on the everyday lives and experiences of the people native to North America. There are four main themes in Native Americas literature: displacement, â€Å"thou vs. it†, definition of evil, and assimilation. We will write a custom essay sample on Native American Literature or any similar topic only for you Order Now The most prominent is displacement which is expressed through the removal from one’s home, the removal of one’s language, and the removal of one’s identity. The first example of displacement was the removal of Native Americans from their homes and homelands. This excerpt from On Indian Removal shows the Natives being moved away from their homes by the English settlers â€Å"It will separate them from immediate contact with settlements of whites†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Jackson 3. ). The natives were moved without any option to areas with terrible living conditions. Natives were also violently chased from their homes. â€Å"The American armies always drove them out at harvest time, making them face winter without food or shelter†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Thom 1. ). This quote shows English armies driving them out very forcefully right at harvest time; this left the Natives on the run, cold, and starving. From panther in the sky, this quote is another example of displacement â€Å"It was now just as it had been most of her life, the people fleeing, the war chiefs protecting them—except that now they were not in their homeland anymore. † (Thom 3. ).. It shows how the natives of that time had been running for most of their lives. The second form of displacement is the loss of the Native’s languages due to the Englishman’s pressure. After assimilation many Native Americans lost their language. â€Å"†¦and I never understood her prayer†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Edrich 1184. ) this quote from â€Å"The Way to Rainy Mountain. shows that over the years many Natives lost their languages. Children were taken and placed into boarding schools due to displacement. â€Å"The experience in boarding schools which existed from 1875 to 1928 was difficult for Indian children who were forbidden to speak their Native language†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Native 1. ). In these boarding schools the Native children were punished if caught speaking in their Native tongue and this led to the loss of their language. New laws passed by English affected Native language as well. â€Å"†¦the outlawing of native languages†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Native 1. This quote comes from â€Å"Native Americans†. Once the English began legally punishing Native who spoke their language, the languages then became less known by generations to come. The third form of displacement was the complete loss of Natives’ identity. In the following quote from â€Å"Native Americans† there are examples of Natives losing their identities: â€Å"Military defeat, cultural pressure, confinement to reservation, forced cultural assimilation†¦Ã¢â‚¬ . The natives are forced to assimilate into English culture causing displacement of overall identity. In the next quote from On Indian Removal Natives begin to give up on old customs â€Å"Two important tribes have excepted the provision made for their removal at the last session of Congress, and it is believed that their example will induce the remaining tribes also to seek the same obvious advantages†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Jackson 1. ). In this Native American begin to give into English pressure leaving behind their heritage and identity. This next quote from â€Å"The Names of Women. † shows total loss of Native names â€Å"renaming became an ecclesiastical exercise, and, as a result, most women in the next two generations bear the names of saints†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Edrich 1182. . The natives were given new names, by the Englishman, to replace their original names. This practice led to the demise of many native identities. As a result of Displacement Native American lives were changed forever. By loss of their home they suffered, whether it have been English settlers peacefully remov ing and relocating them or the English violently pushing them from their homes as seen in Panther in The Sky. Natives also lost their languages through displacement. Lastly, the Native Americans lost their identities by the hands of those foreign to their country that came to America and took utter control. Works Cited Edrich, Louis. â€Å"The Names of Women. † Glencoe American Literature. Eds. Beverly Ann Chinn, et. Al. Columbus, Ott: Glencoe, 2002. pp. 1181-1185. Print. Jackson, A. â€Å"President Andrew Jackson† On Indian Removal. Print. Momaday, N. Scott. from â€Å"The Way to Rainy Mountain. †Glencoe American Literature. Eds. Beverly Ann Chinn, et. Al. Columbus, Ott: Glencoe, 2002. Pp. 1054-59 Native Americans. home. comcast. com. n. p. n. d. Web. 29 Oct. 2012. http://home. comcast. net/~sylvanarrow/native_americans. htm Thom, James Alexander. Prologue. from Panther in The Sky. N. Y. : Ballatine 1989. Print. How to cite Native American Literature, Essay examples

Friday, April 24, 2020

Marketing Plan for Water Sensitive Nail Polish

Introduction Following a detailed market research on customer behavior and consumption dynamics of nail polish, we have identified the need to provide customers with a unique brand of nail polish that can easily be removed using water.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Marketing Plan for Water Sensitive Nail Polish specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Through surveys and interviews, many users of nail polish products expressed concern about the additional costs that were incurred on nail polish removers. Some of them are sold at higher prices than the polish itself. This paper presents a marketing plan for a new nail polish that will save consumers unnecessary removal costs. Company Overview Founded in 1981 by Essie Weingarten, the original idea was to create an all-in-one fun and classic nail polish brand based on color differentiation. The founder filled a market niche that other brands had not identified. The Essie brand was sold to L’Orà ©al in 2010. The change of ownership made the brand penetrate into markets that were reachable by more customers including Target and Walgreens that employed masterpiece display methods for Essie products. L’Oreal has expanded worldwide taking the products to the international arena, a situation that made a great effect on the nail polish industry. This year, the Essie Company is planning to launch a brand new nail polish to reach low middle-class consumers who have been segregated by existing brands. The research reveals that venturing into this market will help increase the economies of scale besides promoting brand awareness among low-income earners. The new product will help consumers save a substantial amount of money on nail polish removers. Following its merger with L’Orà ©al in 2010, the Essie Company expanded significantly, reaching international markets. Currently, the company has over 90 outlets and 250,000 salons globally.A dvertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Industry Analysis Nail polish industry seeks to create good looks, especially amongst women, in terms of colors that match with factors such as moods, outfit, and season among other girly preferences. The industry has been booming gradually over the past three decades with many players flocking the industry with unique brands and marketing strategies. Numerous market surveys have shown that consumption of nail polish has increased since 2012 with brands intensifying marketing campaign using new advertisement technologies such as the internet. Statistically, 35% of the nail polish users consume over 27 bottles of nail polish annually. This state of affairs can be attributed to the rapid changes in modern fashion. Consumers of almost at status ranging from celebrities to young girls use nail polish. Essie group is among the leading brands as it continues to revolutionize the industry with innovative product development. The brand has reached diversified markets through Target and Walgreens stores; hence, competing favorably with other brands such as the OPI, Revlon, and Sally Hansen. Collecting Information and Forecasting Demand The Essie Company collects information regarding market dynamics and consumption trends in a bid make informed decisions prior to the launching of new products. This part presents the information collected in 2014 as the company focuses on the demand behavior of the new nail polish. The 2014 report on the nails industry statistics depicted a fast booming sector with expenditures on nail polish climbing from $8.28 in 2013 to 8.54 billion in 2014. Experts liken this growth to the tattoo industry by claiming that nail care is a form of self-expression (Redding, 2014). The products themselves were the sole drivers of the above-mentioned growth. Notably, Gel polish was shown to have revolutionized the nail industry.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Marketing Plan for Water Sensitive Nail Polish specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Through intensive market research, especially on the technology involved in the nail polish industry, it has been revealed that customers wish for a beauty product that takes less than 10 minutes in removal. The social media was deemed powerful in increasing brand awareness for numerous beauty firms including Essie and L’Oreal through viral sharing of the artistic nail work. Most recently, Essie offered a nail polish contest, taking the nail art to the social media and streets. In fact, nail art forms one among the five most tagged and shared pictures on Pinterest and Instagram (Redding, 2014). Market growth was recorded among women aged between 26 and 35 years with girls between 16 and 25 years-old coming second in nail polish usage. The report reveals that the growth has been i mmensely contributed by the youths who are highly associated with the social media. In this regard, Essie brand aims to concentrate on this group through maintain a consistent online presence. Recently, there have been sponsored Twitter accounts popping up in every user’s account. This strategy intensified advertising campaigns for the cosmetic companies. Constant research on the behaviors of the online community is essential as it provides an insight into the advertisers’ choice of the medium and methodology. Identifying Market Segments and Targets The analysis of consumer behavior is a vital concept particularly in creating demand and moving a new product. It involves studying the prevailing demographics, psychographics, and consumer behaviors in the target market. This analysis contributes significantly to the successful entry of a new product. The Essie brand enterprise conducts occasional consumer analysis to ensure sustainable and consistent sales output. The new product targets women aged between 16 and 34 years. This age bracket comprises the main consumers of cosmetic products.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Essie targets a particular class of consumer’s who welcome the idea of removing nail polish with affordable materials such as water. Moreover, the Nail polish will be available for all consumers including users in fashion, TV, and movie shows who are important advertisers of the company’s products. Essie does rigorous market surveys through many avenues such as the social media forums, its interactive websites, and mass media shows to learn customer behaviors and monitor changes in consumption trends. This strategy helps in aligning product design and development to match the consumer needs. Through demographic analysis, the company has moved its other products successfully through its dedicated stores and outlets in 65 countries. The new product comes in diversified colors. The company acknowledges its customers’ different color preferences including the queen of England’s preference, ‘Ballet Slippers’. This fact explains the significance th at Essie attaches to its customer analysis. In addition, the Essie brand is recognized for its iconic shades that marry with the different countries in which its products revolve. The brand boasts of an unshakable reputation for its classic colors. In this regard, moving the new cost-effective product is optimistically a walkover. Creating Demand Brand creation is a significant aspect of any business. The Essie Company boats of a globally renowned brand name. However, the company intends to incorporate a robust brand campaign throughout its markets to stimulate the demand for the product. Advertising is a brand campaign and marketing strategy that has been in use for many years. It uses mainstream media including TV shows, in between news, billboards, and web-based internet advertising among others (Panzone Tiffin, 2012). The Essie Company has learned from the past that it has failed in advertising. However, the company is committed to allocating funds for promotions and advertisin g. The brand is eyeing emerging teen celebrities in the music and movie industries including Arian Grande, Charlie XCX, and Justin Bieber among others. This strategy has worked successfully for other brands including Sally Hansen brand. The innovative brand will also be advertised in superior magazines such as the Forbes and Glamour among others to seek more reputation and customer base. Blogging is also an important method of advertising that has been used extensively by many businesses (Tang, 2014). The Essie Cosmetics Ltd aims at establishing partnerships with experienced beauty bloggers to increase online presence as it targets the online community. Internet technology has played a crucial role in creating advertisement forums, especially in the last 5 to 10 years. Many users deem the strategy a powerful marketing tool in the twenty-first century. Blogging will help Essie to gain more customers that are loyal. A research that was conducted by Redding (2014) showed that the onlin e community respects beauty bloggers as products featured in blogs paint a lasting image in the consumer’s mind. Establishing collaborations with respected bloggers can propel Essie towards the creation of demands from non-interested clients. It can also create positive perceptions of potential customers thereby adding up to the existing customer base. Setting Product Strategy The company’s innovative product will be hit the market with a broad range of colors that will offer a variety of choices to consumers. The Essie Cosmetics Ltd is renowned for the creation of products that match different moods and fashion outfits at reasonable prices. The new product is designed for the diverse consumer demographics with both luxury and affordable products coming in already recognized colors worldwide. In the past five years, fashion has changed rigorously, especially with innovative beauty technology including magnetic enhanced nail polish introduced by Essie and the most recen t shade shifter launched by ORLY, which changes color with different environments and temperatures (Redding, 2014). With the new product being highly affordable, the company projects increased profitability in the near future. The industry is currently booming with brands coming up with tech-savvy products that seek to attain a competitive edge over each other. The growth potential of the industry remains steady and promising. In fact, the use nail polish has been in existence for numerous centuries with products getting better with each unique innovation Developing Pricing Strategies and Programs Marketing mix entails four strategic marketing practices that a new product goes through to reach target markets successfully. The 4Ps include product, price, place, and promotion (Panzone Tiffin, 2012). The water-resistant nail polish will enter the market in over 250 colors. The price for the nail polish will be differentiated based on the class of the targeted consumers and market segm ents. For the low-income earners, the nail polish will retail at $4 while for the upper-class consumers, it will retail at $8. The difference in price will be guided by the benefit that the upper and middle-class segment will enjoy, which will not be available for the other classes of consumers. Place refers to the geographical areas where consumers can obtain the product (Tang, 2014). The water resistant nail polish will be available in many beauty stores worldwide. The leading outlets in New York including Target and Walgreens will sell the new product. It will also reach worldwide markets in a period not exceeding twelve months through shipping that commences in a month’s time. Designing and Managing Integrated Marketing Channels (Distribution) The Essie Cosmetics Ltd wishes to use the established L’Orà ©al’s platform to attain robust and irreversible market entry and growth. In fact, the company expanded more than just a salon brand with the help of Lâ€⠄¢Oreal. The new product will reach more people in diverse and extensive markets including stores and cities worldwide. In addition, the new products will be available in both Target and Walgreens stores, which have recently become the main outlet stores for Essie’s products. In less than six months, the new product is expected to be available in 250,000 stores in 60 countries around the world. Essie uses a variety of distribution channels including warehousing and supply to retail outlets. International distribution is done through shipping to the different whole sellers and leading stores in the countries where Essie is represented. In fact, through L’Orà ©al, the Essie Cosmetics Ltd sells more than 50 products every second. With this apt marketing campaign, the company is highly optimistic that the new nail product will make a huge impact on nail polish markets globally. Through its diverse iconic ambassadors such as Beyoncà © Knowles and Jenifer Lopez among many others, L’Orà ©al moves beauty products rapidly given the celebrity perspective created worldwide. Designing and Managing Integrated Marketing Communications Through the help of L’Orà ©al, the Essie Cosmetics Ltd will employ apt marketing programs and promotion campaigns with a view of creating sustainable demand for the new product. Together with the reputable brand name, the promotional efforts will yield desirable results. The proactive programs will include the creation of integrated and interactive online presence including Pinterest, Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram (Tang, 2014). The Essie Company acknowledges the significance of social media platforms in the contemporary business world. Among the many functions it executes, social media marketing provides an interactive communication and diverse views and feedback from the consumers regarding tastes, preferences, satisfactions, recommendations, and expectations of the products (Redding, 2014). The information gathered from the clients is vital as manufacturers focus on adjusting product aspects to suit their tastes. Managing the Marketing Effort Marketing Objectives and Goals The introduction of the new water sensitive nail polish is in line with the company’s strategic objectives to increase brand awareness, reach a wider customer base, command brand loyalty through affordable beauty, scale up profitability, and satisfy a neglected market niche. Financial Objectives To increase Essie’s profit margin by 4% in 18 months To penetrate the low-income earners’ market with the new product with a view to increasing the brand’s sales by approximately 20% in 18 months Marketing Objectives To increase brand awareness particularly through e-transformation including social media, e-commerce, and blogging To compete favorably with the O.P.I brand in Fashion shows and movies To create demand for the new product through affordable pricing Competitor Analysis The main dir ect competitors of the Essie Company include the O.P.I Nail Lacquers and Sally Hansen. The former is the leading premium nail polish brand that is highly recognized for its divergent collections differentiated in terms of countries, fashion trends, TV shows, and movies. Through collaboration with the movie and fashion shows, the brand has established itself in high grounds that others have not reached for many years. The brand employs unique selling and marketing strategies. For instance, salons can only purchase O.P.I products through the company’s website. In addition, the brand is renowned for demand creation and desire. Sally Hansen is a specialized all-in-one beauty brand whose business centers on nail therapy. They combine nail polish with the tools for manicure and pedicure. This combination gives the brand a competitive advantage over others such as Essie that sell nail polish only. The Sally Hansen Company manufactures and distributes cosmetics such as topcoats and m anicure gels among others. This brand competes closely with Essie’s Insta-Dri that sells in drugstores where the new Essie product is expected to enter just like the other products of the company. Sally and Hansen have colonized many towns that Essie has not reached. This situation has made the brand a stronger competitor for Essie. In addition, the brand enjoys an extensive customer loyalty since its product movement is not hindered by demographic factors. Research indicates that customers of diverse ages, races, income levels, and different preferences accept Essie’s products. SWOT Analysis SWOT analysis is a summary of an organization’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats in relation to its micro and macro-environments (Panzone Tiffin, 2012). Strengths Customer loyalty. Essie brands boasts of a strong reputation that has created a strong customer loyalty for its products for many years. This competitive advantage will contribute to the success ful penetration of the new nail polish into the market. Reasonable price: All products of the Essie Cosmetics Limited are sold at friendly prices. Its affordable pricing strategy has proved successful in product selling and distribution. Numerous avenues for customer buying. Essie products can be purchase online and in the many stores in different countries around the world. Diversity of colors that their customers have treasured. Essie’s products come in more than 250 colors. Diverse consumers and distributors. Essie products are sold to both retailers and whole sellers. In addition, the outlets are highly differentiated to serve the different markets dynamics. Some of the high-end outlets include the Target and Walgreens. Weaknesses Less vibrant advertising strategies (Redding, 2014). The Essie Cosmetics Ltd lags behind in advertising its products as opposed to its close competitors. For instance, the O.P.I Company uses movies and TV shows to advertise its products. It wa s not until most recently that L’Oreal started integrating Essie products in its known advertising campaigns including the use of iconic brand ambassadors. Essie products are available almost in every beauty shop. This situation makes it appear like a cheap brand (Redding, 2014). The product will come in already many existing colors that are well known by the consumers. Therefore, recognizing it as a new product will not be at a glance. This limitation can slow the product’s movement; hence, slowing the sales. Opportunities Essie’s new product can command a bigger market if it comes with various tools and Gel kits. The brand has other market gaps to fill such as introducing nail polish brands such as nail pencils, nail tape, and nail therapy among other trendy innovations. Through collaborations and mergers such as movie shows, fashion shows, and TV shows, the brand can achieve higher targets. Threats The biggest threat for the new product is the competiti on presented by other established and vibrant brands. People can perceive the new product removable by water as a low quality product. Missing out significant market trends such as nailing pens and manicures puts the brand in a low profile as far as brand awareness is concerned. Customer Service The Essie Cosmetics Ltd offers personalized services to its customers (Tang, 2014). It has agents in all stores worldwide including Target and Walgreens whereby they assist customers in choosing their preferences from the displays. They also perform demonstrations on the application of the nail polish products. The agents are highly trained in product handling and use. As a result, they provide professional services to the esteemed customers. In addition, the Essie brand has recently acknowledged the increasing importance of online customer support that is cheap, instant, and effective. With the changing purchasing and consumption behavior and increasing importance of interactive marketing strategies, the brand intends to increase its online presence through assigning tech-savvy agents to represent the company’s interests in the web. In a campaign to launch the new promising product, the Essie Cosmetics Ltd will allocate a substantial budget that will hasten the product recognition through both direct and virtual customer supports (Tang, 2014). Expense Forecast To achieve the aforementioned marketing strategy, Essie brand has allocated $500,000. The following table extrapolates the usage of the funds in a bid to achieve a successful product launch and support promotion and distribution. A great portion of the allocation will be spent on product distribution and placement both locally and overseas. The rest of the money will cater for product promotion, advertising, and increasing online presence as well as customer support (Redding, 2014). The firm also intends to open a YouTube channel where customers and the public can access press releases, new product infor mation, and demos. It will also provide a platform for customers to share their videos with the company (Tang, 2014). Together with other strategies, there is an expected creation of more demand and strengthening of the renowned brand name for Essie. The firm’s new product will boast of the established and working marketing avenues that include more than 250 stores available in 60 countries. Activity Allocated amount ($) (p.a.) Overseas Distribution 250,000 Local Distribution 125,000 Blogger Advertising 25,000 TV shows Advertising 50,000 Online Presence 25,000 Customer Support 25,000 Market Forecast The company’s management is aware of emerging economies, especially in China and Vietnam. Plans are underway to establish stores in those markets to offer both luxury and affordable products. Given the rising class of wealthy men in these markets catapulted by the growing markets, any firm can benefit significantly in the near future. Critical Issues The n ew product is not likely to pick as speculated in the first and second quarter; hence, the firm can incur costs during the sluggish period (Panzone Tiffin, 2012). The revenue obtained from other products will be used to support the sluggish period. This situation will most likely shrink the company’s profit margin. However, the firm’s potential of rapid sales for the new product is optimistically high, as other products have surpassed the management’s expectation in the past with quick recognition and acceptance by the consumers. Conclusion The purpose of this marketing plan is to exhibit the organization’s marketing strategies and product placement in the market. From the aforementioned, the report has revealed that the firm will employ robust strategies besides embracing e-transformation in the modern day business practice. The company has a strong brand name and customer loyalty all over the world. This situation gives the enterprise a competitive adv antage over the rivals. It has shown how the allocated funds will be used in distribution and promotion of the brand new one of its water resistant nail polish. Reference List Kast, C., Lavinthal, A., Ruderman, Z., Fields, J. (2014). Beauty Watch. People, 81(25), 79-86. Panzone, L., Tiffin, R. (2012). The Impact of Price Promotions on Producer Strategies in Markets with Large Product Heterogeneity. Agribusiness, 28(4), 421-439. Redding, M. (2014). Nail Consumers Demand Newness. Beauty Packaging, 19(1), 58-65. Tang, W. (2014). Nail Tech. Flare, 36(7), 50. This report on Marketing Plan for Water Sensitive Nail Polish was written and submitted by user Camryn Campos to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Strategic Management in Music essays

Strategic Management in Music essays The music industry has seen more rapid and extreme changes than any of the other consumer media in the world. This is true in a variety of respects, the most significant of which include commercial and technological change. These two areas of change have worked concomitantly since the rise of Rock and Roll in the 1950s to transform the music industry to the various forms it has evolved into today. This has a significant impact on companies such as Arista Records, which has, in comparison with other companies, worked with its artists in a very traditional way. While this has been successful in the past, the future of Arista Records is to a large degree dependent on how it can integrate its proven, traditional values, with the rapidly changing world of technology and music. In addition to the rapid increase of consumer spending on music since 1984, the increased demand for music in the comfort of the home also resulted in rapid technological improvements to music. The long play record was for example replaced by the much higher-quality CD, and later developments such as the MP3 player and memory stick made music even more portable not only to the home, but to the workplace, the vehicle sound system, and basically any location with a radio outlet. The most recent development in the music industry is the Internet. Concomitantly with an increase in music sales, this also resulted in an increase in music-related crimes such as piracy. Many Internet locations for example offer free downloads of music that have not been authorized by artists or record companies. Controlling these cases is at best a challenge to the music industry. Such rapid technological change and the increase of ease in which music can be purchased, has also necessitated a change in the business structure of the music industry. Large entertainment conglomerates sprang up to begin taking over the entertainment and music industry. In addition to music, all ...

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Avoiding the Passive Voice in Spanish

Avoiding the Passive Voice in Spanish One of the most common mistakes made by beginning Spanish students who have English as a first language is to overuse passive verb forms. Sentences with passive verbs are very common in English, but in Spanish they arent used very much- especially in everyday speech. Key Takeaways: Spanish Passive Voice Although Spanish has a passive voice, it isnt used as much in Spanish as it is in English.One alternative to the passive voice is to turn it into the active voice. Either explicitly state the subject or use a verb that allows the subject to be implied rather than stated.Another common alternative is to use reflexive verbs. What Is the Passive Voice? The passive voice involves a sentence construction in which the performer of the action isnt stated, and in which the action is indicated by a form of to be (ser in Spanish) followed by a past participle, and in which the subject of the sentence is the one acted upon. If that isnt clear, look at a simple example in English: Katrina was arrested. In this case, it isnt specified who performed the arrest, and the person arrested is the subject of the sentence. The same sentence could be expressed in Spanish using the passive voice: Katrina fue arrestada. But not all English sentences using the passive voice can be translated into Spanish the same way. Take, for example, Jose was sent a package. Putting that sentence in a passive form in Spanish doesnt work. Josà © fue enviado un paquete just doesnt make sense in Spanish; the listener might think at first that Jose was sent somewhere. Also, Spanish has quite a few verbs that simply arent used in the passive form. And still others arent used passively in speech, although you may see them in journalistic writing or in items translated from English. In other words, if you want to translate an English sentence using a passive verb to Spanish, youre usually best off coming up with a different way. Alternatives to the Passive Voice How, then, should such sentences be expressed in Spanish? There are two common ways: recasting the sentence in the active voice and using a reflexive verb. Recasting in the passive voice: Probably the easiest way to translate most passive sentences in Spanish is to change them to the active voice. In other words, make the subject of the passive sentence the object of a verb. One reason for using a passive voice is to avoid saying who is performing the action. Fortunately, in Spanish, verbs can stand alone without a subject, so you dont necessarily have to figure out who is performing the action to revise the sentence. Some examples: Passive English: Roberto was arrested.Active Spanish: Arrestaron a Roberto. (They arrested Roberto.)Passive English: The book was bought by Ken.Active Spanish: Ken comprà ³ el libro. (Ken bought the book.)Passive English: The box office was closed at 9.Active Spanish: Cerrà ³ la taquilla a las nueve. Or, cerraron la taquilla a las nueve. (He/she closed the box office at 9, or they closed the box office at 9.) Using reflexive verbs:  The second common way in which you can avoid the passive voice in Spanish is to use a reflexive verb. A reflexive verb is one in which the verb acts on the subject. An example in English: I saw myself in the mirror. (Me vi en el espejo.) In Spanish, where the context doesnt indicate otherwise, such sentences are often understood in the same way as are passive sentences in English. And like passive forms, such sentences dont clearly indicate who is doing the action. Some examples: Passive English: Apples (are) sold here.Reflexive Spanish:  Aquà ­ se venden las manzanas. (Literally, apples sell themselves here.)Passive English: The box office was closed at 9.Reflexive Spanish: Se cerrà ³ la taquilla a las nueve. (Literally, the box office closed itself at 9.)Passive English: A cough isnt treated with antibiotics.Reflexive Spanish: La tos no se trata con antibià ³ticos. (Literally, the cough doesnt treat itself with antibiotics.) Some of the sample sentences in this lesson could be understandably translated to Spanish in the passive form. But native Spanish speakers dont normally speak that way, so the translations on this page would usually sound more natural. Obviously, you wouldnt use the literal translations above in translating such Spanish sentences to English! But such sentence constructions are very common in Spanish, so you shouldnt shy away from using them.